By Paul Keall, Tokihiro Yamamoto, Yelin Suh (auth.), Jan Ehrhardt, Cristian Lorenz (eds.)
Respiratory movement factors a big uncertainty in radiotherapy making plans of the thorax and top stomach. the most aim of radiation remedy is to remove or cut down tumor cells with out harmful the encompassing tissue through offering a excessive radiation dose to the tumor quarter and a dose as little as attainable to fit organ tissues. assembly this call for is still a problem specifically in case of lung tumors as a result of breathing-induced tumor and organ movement the place movement amplitudes can degree as much as a number of centimeters. for this reason, modeling of respiration movement has develop into more and more vital in radiation remedy. With 4D imaging recommendations spatiotemporal snapshot sequences will be received to enquire dynamic procedures within the patient’s physique. moreover, photograph registration allows the estimation of the breathing-induced movement and the outline of the temporal switch in place and form of the buildings of curiosity via setting up the correspondence among photos obtained at varied stages of the respiring cycle. In radiation remedy those movement estimations are used to outline exact therapy margins, e.g. to calculate dose distributions and to increase prediction types for gated or robot radiotherapy. during this publication, the expanding function of picture registration and movement estimation algorithms for the translation of advanced 4D scientific snapshot sequences is illustrated. various 4D CT picture acquisition recommendations and conceptually varied movement estimation algorithms are awarded. The medical relevance is verified through instance functions that are regarding the radiation remedy of thoracic and belly tumors. The cutting-edge and views are proven through an perception into the present box of study. The ebook is addressed to biomedical engineers, clinical physicists, researchers and physicians operating within the fields of clinical photo research, radiology and radiation therapy.
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Additional info for 4D Modeling and Estimation of Respiratory Motion for Radiation Therapy
5 mm and high temporal resolution of less than 200 ms. Today, 64-slice CT has become popular in diagnostic imaging and is into radiation oncology. The scanner with the largest detector coverage at present is Aquillion One 320-slice CT scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin, CA), with the coverage of 16 cm per gantry rotation [4, 19]. It has been shown that the 320-slice MSCT can help characterize the tumor motion more accurately than a 16-slice MSCT in a phantom study . Its clinical application on 4D CT is promising.
Med. Phys. 33(1), 235–246 (2006) 19. : Respiration-correlated spiral ct: a method of measuring respiratory-induced anatomic motion for radiation treatment planning. Med. Phys. 30(1), 88–97 (2003) 18 P. Keall et al. 20. : Evaluation of respiratory movement during gated radiotherapy using film and electronic portal imaging. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 52(2), 522–531 (2002) 21. : Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy.
4 cm is the same for the Siemens 16, 20 and 40 channels are 4, 8, 16 and 64 (Fig. 3a). To acquire the helical 4D CT data with Siemens or Philips scanners, the numbers of SRO data channels are 16, 20, 40, and 64 (Fig. 3c). 1) in their 16-slice and up CT scanners. This practice is typical in commercial CT that a new feature is only introduced in newer CT scanners, which was 16-slice at the time. The number of physical data channels on a MSCT is at least the number of data channels of SRO. Both GE’s 4 and 8 channels have 16 physical detectors.