Download A Brief History of France: An Introduction to the People, by Cecil Jenkins PDF

By Cecil Jenkins

A short background of France tells the tale of the formation of this grand country via its humans, nice occasions, and tradition. once we examine France we frequently evoke photos of good nutrition and wine, the based boulevards of Paris, and the stylish shores of St. Tropez, however the biggest kingdom in Europe has even more to supply than vacationer points of interest.

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21 The rapid transformation of Hegel’s place on the French philosophical scene was truly remarkable. In 1930, Koyre´ could report to the first philosophical congress on Hegel in The Hague that, unlike the situations in Germany, England, and Italy, a tradition of Hegel studies had never developed in France and there was little to report in terms of French Hegel scholarship. 22 But 16 years later, following Koje`ve’s lectures, the appearance of Being and Nothingness, and the recent appearance of Hyppolite’s translation of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit and his commentary on Hegel, the situation had been so transformed that Merleau-Ponty could comment, in the essay ‘‘Hegel’s Existentialism,’’ that ‘‘All the great philosophical ideas of the past century – the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis – had their beginnings in Hegel; it was he who started the attempt to explore the irrational and integrate it into an expanded reason which remains 20 21 22 Sartre, Being and Nothingness, p.

What results in this third stage is a criticism of metaphysical speculation for having replaced the more primitive theological principle of explanation in terms of a personal will with explanations in terms of abstract concepts. Metaphysics must, Comte concludes, give way to scientific, ‘‘positive’’ explanation that establishes ‘‘a connection between single phenomena and some general 4 We cannot here discuss the impact of developments in mathematics (Dedekind, Cantor) or science (Planck, Einstein) on developments in French philosophy in the early years of the twentieth century.

Scheler there introduced his phenomenology to the French through lectures, in German, on the contemporary significance of St. Augustine and Meister Eckhardt. These gatherings at Pontigny, which took place during the summers from 1910 to 1939 and were attended by, among others, Nicolas Berdyaev, Martin Buber, Andre´ Gide, Andre´ Malraux, Franc¸ois Mauriac, Andre´ Maurois, and Paul Vale´ry, served as the model for the gatherings organized since 1952 by the Centre Culturel de Cerisy at the chateau at Cerisy-la-Salle belonging to Desjardins’ daughter Anne Heurgon-Desjardins (1899–1977).

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