Download A geologic time scale 2004 by Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith PDF

By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith

Half I. creation: 1. advent F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. ideas and strategies: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. good isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic sessions: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, okay. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condo and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. building and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; normal index

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Prior to the evolution of metazoan life, the biological record is not generally suitable for a detailed subdivision of Precambrian time. Thus, Precambrian time is currently subdivided by the artificial assignment of numerical ages to stratigraphic boundaries. The Precambrian time scale is therefore a chronometric rather than a chronostratigraphic scale. However, it may become possible to apply the GSSP concept to some intervals of the Precambrian (see Chapter 10). 2 . 1 History of geologic stratigraphic standardization∗ The prodigious stratigraphic labors of the nineteenth century resulted in innumerable competing stratigraphic schemes.

Thus, Precambrian time is currently subdivided by the artificial assignment of numerical ages to stratigraphic boundaries. The Precambrian time scale is therefore a chronometric rather than a chronostratigraphic scale. However, it may become possible to apply the GSSP concept to some intervals of the Precambrian (see Chapter 10). 2 . 1 History of geologic stratigraphic standardization∗ The prodigious stratigraphic labors of the nineteenth century resulted in innumerable competing stratigraphic schemes.

In 2000, P´alfy et al. summarized 14 U–Pb TIMS dates from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Western Canada, calibrated to regional ammonites stratigraphy. Complex U–Pb systematics made it difficult to obtain precise ages for some of the samples, and additional uncertainties enter when calibrating the regional biostratigraphy to the European standard ammonite zonation, but this data set provides the most important constraint on the basal-Jurassic through Toarcian stages (see Chapter 18). Cycle stratigraphy, which has become the primary method of scaling the Cenozoic time scale, has been applied to portions of the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous time scales (reviewed in Chapters 17–19).

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