By El Sayed H. El Ashry and Ahmed A. Kassem
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Extra info for Account of microwave irradiation for accelerating organic reactions
Alcohols including ethanol are discussed in Chapter 9. indd 3 11/29/06 10:15:18 AM 4 Prologue Cl Cl C F Cl trichlorofluoromethane • Trichlorofluoromethane is a member of a class of molecules called chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs, which contain one or two carbon atoms and several halogens. Trichlorofluoromethane is an unusual organic molecule in that it contains no hydrogen atoms. Because it has a low molecular weight and is easily vaporized, trichlorofluoromethane has been used as an aerosol propellant and refrigerant.
Draw only the valence electrons. 2. Give every second-row element an octet of electrons, if possible. 3. Give each hydrogen two electrons. To draw a Lewis structure for a diatomic molecule like HF, recall that hydrogen has one valence electron and fluorine has seven. H and F each donate one electron to form a two-electron bond. The resulting molecule gives both H and F a filled valence shell. two electrons around H H + F eight electrons around F HF or three lone pairs H F a two-electron bond In a Lewis structure, a solid line indicates a two-electron covalent bond.
All the carbon atoms have four bonds. A stable carbon atom is said to be tetravalent. • Other elements may also be present. Any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen is called a heteroatom. Common heteroatoms include N, O, S, P, and the halogens. • Some compounds have chains of atoms and some compounds have rings. These features explain why there are so many organic compounds: Carbon forms four strong bonds with itself and other elements. Carbon atoms combine together to form rings and chains. Palytoxin—An Example of a Very Complex Organic Compound Let’s complete this discussion with palytoxin (C129H223N3O54), a complex organic molecule first isolated from marine soft corals of the genus Palythoa (Figure 1), and one of the most potent poisons known.