By M.F. Semmelhack
Quantity four specializes in additions and the ensuing substitutions at carbon-carbon &pgr;-bonds. half 1 contains methods in most cases regarded as easy polar reactions, reactive electrophiles and nucleophiles including to alkenes and alkynes. a huge subject is Michael-type addition to electron poor &pgr;-bonds, featured within the first six chapters. partly 2 are accumulated the 4 normal methods resulting in nucleophilic fragrant substitution, together with radical chain strategies and transition steel activation via to &pgr;-complexation. Metal-activated addition (generally by means of nucleophiles) to alkenes and polyenes is gifted partially three, together with allylic alkylation catalyzed by means of palladium. The assurance of nonpolar additions partially four contains radical additions, organometal addition (Heck reaction), carbene addition, and 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions.
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Additional info for Additions to and Substitutions at C-C &pgr;-Bonds, Volume 4
In DSC the sample and the reference are heated separately at constant temperatures while the difference in energy AQ required to obtain the same temperature is measured. The plot of the derivative dAQ/dt (where t is time) as a function of temperature T allows the detection of endothermic and exothermic processes similar to DTA. The change in the slope of the graph indicates glass transition, an exothermic process may indicate crystallization or an exothermic reaction, an endothermic process may indicate melting, vaporization, etc.
A separate subclass of polymers with unsaturated carbon chain backbone is formed by polyacetylene. - Polymers with aromatic hydrocarbon backbone include polymers containing in their chain aromatic hydrocarbon rings, or alternating aromatic rings and aliphatic carbon groups. Thermosetting phenolic resins can be included in this class. - Polymers containing ether groups in the backbone include two subclasses, namely true polyethers and polyacetals. Polyethers such as polyethylene glycol [-O-CH2-CH2-]n having higher polarity compared to polyhydrocarbons are used for many practical applications where some hydrophilic character is necessary.
MOnster, H. Budzikiewicz, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 90 (1989) 119. 13. R. G. Davidson, J. Anal. Appl. , 16(1989) 143. 14. S. C. Moldoveanu, Analytical Pyrolysis of Natural Organic Polymers, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1998. 15. P. C. Uden, Nomenclature and Terminology for Analytical Pyrolysis (IUPAC recommendations 1993), J. Anal. Appl. , 31 (1995) 251. 16. W. J. Irwin, J. Anal. Appl. , 1 (1979) 3. 17. W. J. Irwin, J. Anal. Appl. , 1 (1979) 89. 18. W. W. Wendland, Thermal Analysis, J. Wiley, New York, 1986 W.