Download Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time by William I. Woods, Bruno Glaser (auth.), Dr. Bruno Glaser, PDF

By William I. Woods, Bruno Glaser (auth.), Dr. Bruno Glaser, Professor William I. Woods (eds.)

The regenerative features pointed out in prehistoric, anthropogenic Amazonian darkish earths recommend that notoriously infertile tropical soils should be tremendously greater. Soil enhancement practices by means of old Amerindians allowed them to domesticate the land intensively, without having to continually transparent new fields from woodland. As expanding populations position ever higher strain on tropical forests, this legacy of wealthy, 'living' soils warrants additional examine within the look for high-yield, land-intensive, but sustainable types of administration. The foreign crew of participants to this quantity offers a number of stances centering on features of the starting place, distribution, variability, endurance, and use of Amazonian darkish earths.

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Nimuendaju (1955) suggested that the contemporary ethnic composition of this northwestern region was formed through three strata: (1) the oldest, diverse ethnicities of semi-nomadic hunters and gatherers (Maku, Uaica, and Xiriana); (2) populations of more advanced cultures at the beginning of the Christian era (Arawak and Tukano); and (3) the most recent "hybrid cultures" arising out of European contact with these native groups. Ethnographie research and oral tradition of contemporary Arawak and Tukano groups each suggest that groups from the Arawak linguistic family already inhabited the region when the Tukano arrived (Reichel-Dolmatoff 1985; Wright 1992).

KERN, M. L. DA COSTA, and F. J. L. FRAZÄO Kern DC, Kämpf N (1990} Caracteristicas Fisicas e Morfol6gicas dos Solos com TPA e sua importäncia para os estudos Arqueol6gicos. Rev CEPA 17(20}:277-85 Kern DC, KämpfN (1993} Antropogenic and pedogenic processes at Indian earth archaeological sites ofCachoeira-Porteira, Pani State, Brazil. In: Proc Resumos do Intl Symp on the Quaternary of Amazonia, ABEQUA, Manaus, Brazil Kern DC, Frazäo FJL, Costa ML, Frazäo E, Jardim MA (1999} A influencia das palmeiras como fonte de elementos quimicos em sftios arqueol6gicos com Terra Preta.

1999). The blackwater site of Heckenherger and colleagues is located on the lower Rio Negro, however, where numerous archaeological sites from permanent occupations span the length of a canal connecting the Rio Negro with the Rio Solimöes. This settlement distribution suggests that important trade routes existed between populations inhabiting whitewater and blackwater environments. This leaves in doubt whether isolated blackwater environments were capable of sustaining large, complex societies.

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