Download Analytical Techniques for Studying the Physical Properties by Maria Lidia Herrera PDF

By Maria Lidia Herrera

This e-book will evaluation outdated and new how you can examine emulsion balance and constitution. Examples of emulsion-based meals comprise ice cream, yoghurt, and mayonnaise. The physicochemical houses of emulsions play a big position in nutrients structures, as they at once give a contribution to the feel, sensory and dietary houses of meals. one of many major homes is balance, which refers back to the skill of an emulsion to withstand actual alterations over the years. the improvement of an efficient technique to hinder bad adjustments within the houses of a specific foodstuff emulsion will depend on the dominant physicochemical mechanism(s) answerable for the alterations. In perform, or extra of those mechanisms may perhaps function in live performance. it truly is consequently vital for foodstuff scientists to spot the relative significance of every mechanism, the connection among them, and the criteria that effect them, in order that potent technique of controlling the soundness and physicochemical houses of emulsions might be proven. a number of recommendations are used to check the actual habit and constitution of emulsions. each one strategy has its benefits and drawbacks and gives assorted insights into the destabilization mechanisms. one of the oldest equipment used to check emulsion balance is visible remark and small deformation rheometry. extra lately, different concepts, comparable to ultrasound profiling, microscopy, droplet dimension distribution, and size of floor focus to symbolize adsorbed protein on the interface, have additionally been hired. a few of these thoughts, corresponding to droplet measurement distribution, contain a few type of dilution. in spite of the fact that, dilution disrupts a few buildings that play a major function in balance. the power to check the soundness of nutrition emulsions of their undiluted shape may well exhibit refined nuances approximately their balance. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Turbiscan are one of the extra robust, non-perturbing suggestions used to characterised emulsions.

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Thus, for this purpose, new techniques such as NMR and ultrasonic spectroscopy were developed. McClements and Coupland (1996) proved the fitness of ultrasound spectroscopy for measuring droplet size distributions in concentrated emulsions in situ. The ultrasonic velocity and attenuation coefficient of an emulsion are measured over a range of frequencies, and then the multiplescattering theory is used to convert these measurements into a droplet size distribution. The theory they selected assumes that droplets are spherical, much smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength, and do not physically interact with their neighbors and that higher-order scattering terms are negligible.

By measuring the attenuation of the NMR signal at different times, it is possible to identify when the diffusion becomes restricted and thus estimate the droplet size distribution using a suitable mathematical model (McClements 2007). Commercial instruments based on NMR are sensitive to particle sizes between about 200 nm and 100 mm. % and can therefore be used to analyze many food emulsions without the need for sample dilution. The NMR technique is particularly useful at determining the actual size of the individual droplets in flocculated emulsions (rather than the floc size), as this technique relies on the molecular movement of water molecules within droplets and it detects size increases in the droplets themselves and not the clustering of droplets, thereby differentiating between coalescence and flocculation/ coagulation.

2007) introduced the cryo-FESEM technique for directly investigating the 3D and surface structures of both nondispersed liquid-crystalline phases and the dispersed cubosome and hexosome particles. In that publication, they pioneered the characterization of the 3D morphology of cubosome and hexosome particles. They demonstrated that the 3D cubosome structure enclosing aqueous water channels agreed well with the proposed mathematical models using a nodal surface representation. Using microemulsions (ME) as delivery vehicles requires understanding whether water-insoluble molecules are delivered by an interaction of the ME system with the dietary mixed micelles (DMM) in the small intestine to give new mixed micelles, or by alternate paths.

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