By Christopher A. Faraone
The traditional Greeks as a rule resorted to magic spells to draw and hold lovers--as various allusions in Greek literature and lately chanced on "voodoo dolls," magical papyri, gems, and curse drugs attest. Surveying and studying those a number of texts and artifacts, Christopher Faraone finds that gender is the an important think about realizing love spells. There are, he argues, specific forms of love magic: the curselike charms used essentially by way of males to torture unwilling girls with fiery and maddening ardour till they give up sexually; and the binding spells and debilitating potions as a rule utilized by girls to sedate offended or philandering husbands and lead them to extra affectionate. Faraone's lucid research of those spells additionally yields a few insights in regards to the development of gender in antiquity, for instance, the "femininity" of socially inferior men and the "maleness" of self sufficient prostitutes. most importantly, his findings problem the frequent glossy view that every one Greek males thought of ladies to be certainly lascivious. Faraone finds the lifestyles of an alternative male figuring out of the feminine as "naturally" average and chaste, who makes use of love magic to pacify and regulate the "naturally" indignant and passionate male. This attention-grabbing examine of magical practices and their implications for perceptions of female and male sexuality bargains an strange examine historic Greek faith and society.
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Extra resources for Ancient Greek Love Magic
68. Petropoulos (1988) 215. 69. 207 Kühn) quoting Pseudo-Nachepso; see M. Smith (1979) 132 for discussion. 70. Bonner SMA and Delatte and Derchain (1964) are the classic collections. On the importance of the gemstones, see Eitrem (1939), M. Smith (1979), and Schwartz (1981). 71. Burkert (1985) 7–9. This level of generalization is not, of course, unproblematic. 3. e. e. 72 Although these later and somewhat complicated “Graeco-Roman” or “Graeco-Egyptian” forms of magic are themselves quite beyond the scope of this study, I will at times argue that the originally Greek contributions to them—often signaled by traditional poetic forms and meters or technical terms—can be readily identiﬁed and used to reconstruct and understand the much earlier native Greek tradition of love magic.
104. v. For pharmakon, see note 24 above. ” See Lain Entralgo (1970), Kotansky (1991a), and Furley (1993). e. come to be used generically for any kind of magic spell. 107 The deﬁnitions of other special terms, however, remain fairly stable. 110 The most popular rubric by far is agÃgÁ or agÃgimon, which means “a spell that leads” and designates a variety of techniques used to force young women from their homes,111 105. ” A scholiast to Theoc. ” 106. v. The Latin word venenum, apparently derived from the name of the goddess Venus, undergoes a similar transformation from the speciﬁc (“aphrodisiac”) to the general (“drug, poison, charm”)—a range almost identical with that of Greek pharmakon.
Hipponax may also allude to a love potion to be drunk when one sees the ﬁrst swallow in the spring; see Degani (1962). 83. Aristophanes Acharnians 1048–68. 84. 99); Lloyd (1983) 120–126 and Preus (1988) 78–80 discuss the pharmakopolai. 85. ]”); PGM VII. 185–186 (anoint your “thing” [pragma] with honey and pepper); and PDM lxi. 58–62 (rubric: “For an erection”). See Riess (1896a) 83 n. 1 for parallels in the medical writers. 86. 283–294 (to ensure faithfulness in a woman)—and attested in the Middle Ages and Renaissance; see Kieckhefer (1991) 32–33 (if the wife is indifferent) and Brucker (1963) 10 (to ensure her faithfulness).